How 3 girls, one from Portland, modified what we find out about lengthy COVID

A British historian, an Italian archaeologist and an American preschool instructor have by no means met in individual, however they share a outstanding COVID-19 pandemic bond.

Tormented by eerily related signs, the three girls are credited with describing, naming and serving to deliver lengthy COVID into the general public’s consciousness in early 2020.

Rachel Pope, of Liverpool, took to Twitter in late March 2020 to explain her bedeviling signs, then unnamed, after a coronavirus an infection. Elisa Perego in Italy first used the time period “lengthy COVID,” in a Could tweet that yr. Amy Watson in Portland, Oregon, received inspiration in naming her Fb assist group from the trucker cap she’d been sporting, and “lengthy hauler” quickly turned a part of the pandemic lexicon.

Practically three years into the pandemic, scientists are nonetheless attempting to determine why some individuals get lengthy COVID and why a small portion — together with the three girls — have lasting signs.

Thousands and thousands of individuals worldwide have had lengthy COVID, reporting varied signs together with fatigue, lung issues, and mind fog and different neurological signs. Proof suggests most recuperate considerably inside a yr, however latest knowledge present that it has contributed to greater than 3,500 U.S. deaths.

Right here’s a few of the newest proof:


Many research and anecdotal proof counsel that girls are extra probably than males to develop lengthy COVID. There might be organic causes.

Ladies’s immune techniques typically mount stronger reactions to viruses, micro organism, parasites and different germs, famous Sabra Klein, a Johns Hopkins professor who research immunity.

Ladies are additionally more likely than males to have autoimmune ailments, the place the physique mistakenly assaults its personal wholesome cells. Some scientists imagine lengthy COVID may consequence from an autoimmune response triggered by the virus.

Ladies’s our bodies additionally are likely to have extra fats tissue and rising analysis suggests the coronavirus could cover in fats after an infection. Scientists are also learning whether or not girls’s fluctuating hormone ranges could enhance the dangers.

One other doable issue: Ladies are extra probably than males to hunt well being care and infrequently extra attuned to modifications of their our bodies, Klein famous.

“I don’t suppose we should always ignore that,” she mentioned. Biology and habits are most likely each at play, Klein mentioned.

It might thus be no coincidence that it was three girls who helped shine the primary gentle on lengthy COVID.

Pope, 46, began chronicling what she was experiencing in March 2020: flulike signs, then her lungs, coronary heart and joints had been affected. After a month she began having some “OK” days, however signs endured.

She and a few equally ailing colleagues related with Perego on Twitter. “We began form of coming collectively as a result of it was actually the one place the place we may do this,” Pope mentioned. “In 2020, we’d joke that we’d get collectively for Christmas and have a celebration,” Pope mentioned. “Then clearly it went on, and I believe we stopped joking.”

Watson began her digital lengthy haulers group that April. The others quickly discovered of that nickname and embraced it.


A number of research counsel the ever-present Epstein-Barr virus may play a job in some instances of lengthy COVID.

Irritation brought on by coronavirus an infection can activate herpes viruses, which stay within the physique after inflicting an acute an infection, mentioned Dr. Timothy Henrich, a virus knowledgeable on the College of California, San Francisco.

Epstein-Barr virus is among the many most typical of those herpes viruses: An estimated 90% of the U.S. inhabitants has been contaminated with it. The virus could cause mononucleosis or signs that could be dismissed as a chilly.

Henrich is amongst researchers who’ve discovered immune markers signaling Epstein-Barr reactivation within the blood of lengthy COVID sufferers, notably these with fatigue.

Not all lengthy COVID sufferers have these markers. Nevertheless it’s doable that Epstein-Barr is inflicting signs in those that do, though scientists say extra examine is required.

Some scientists additionally imagine that Epstein-Barr triggers continual fatigue syndrome, a situation that bears many similarities to lengthy COVID, however that is also unproven.


Weight problems is a threat issue for extreme COVID-19 infections and scientists try to grasp why.

Stanford College researchers are amongst those that have discovered proof that the coronavirus can infect fats cells. In a latest examine, they discovered the virus and indicators of irritation in fats tissue taken from individuals who had died from COVID.

Lab exams confirmed that the virus can reproduce in fats tissue. That raises the chance that fats tissue may function a “reservoir,” probably fueling lengthy COVID.

Might eradicating fats tissue deal with or stop some instances of lengthy COVID? It’s a tantalizing query, however the analysis is preliminary, mentioned Dr. Catherine Blish, a Stanford infectious ailments professor and a senior writer of the examine.

Scientists on the College of Texas Southwestern Medical Middle are learning leptin, a hormone produced by fats cells that may affect the physique’s immune response and promote irritation.

They plan to check whether or not injections of a manufactured antibody may scale back leptin ranges — and in flip irritation from coronavirus infections or lengthy COVID.

“We have now a great scientific foundation along with some preliminary knowledge to argue that we is perhaps heading in the right direction,” mentioned Dr. Philipp Scherer.


It has been estimated that about 30% of individuals contaminated with the coronavirus will develop lengthy COVID, primarily based on knowledge from earlier within the pandemic.

Most individuals who’ve lingering, recurrent or new signs after an infection will recuperate after about three months. Amongst these with signs at three months, about 15% will proceed to have signs for at the least 9 extra months, in keeping with a latest examine within the Journal of the American Medical Affiliation.

Determining who’s in danger for years-long signs “is such an advanced query,” mentioned Dr. Lawrence Purpura, an infectious illness knowledgeable at Columbia College.

These with extreme infections appear to be extra in danger for lengthy COVID, though it could possibly additionally have an effect on individuals with gentle infections. These whose infections trigger extreme lung harm together with scarring could expertise breathlessness, coughing or fatigue for greater than a yr. And a smaller group of sufferers with gentle preliminary COVID-19 infections could develop neurologic signs for greater than a yr, together with continual fatigue and mind fog, Purpura mentioned.

“Nearly all of sufferers will ultimately recuperate,” he mentioned. “It’s essential for individuals to know that.”

It’s small comfort for the three girls who helped the world acknowledge lengthy COVID.

Perego, 44, developed coronary heart, lung and neurologic issues and stays severely ailing.

She is aware of that scientists have discovered rather a lot in a short while, however she says “there’s a hole” between lengthy COVID analysis and medical care.

“We have to translate scientific information into higher remedy and coverage,” she mentioned.

Watson, approaching 50, says she has “by no means had any form of restoration.” She has had extreme migraines, plus digestive, nerve and foot issues. Just lately she developed extreme anemia.

She needs the medical neighborhood had a extra organized strategy to treating lengthy COVID. Medical doctors say not figuring out the underlying trigger or causes makes that tough.

“I simply need my life again,” Watson mentioned, “and it’s not wanting like that’s all that doable.”


The Related Press Well being and Science Division receives assist from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute’s Science and Academic Media Group. The AP is solely accountable for all content material.

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